ENGLISH AND LITERATURE PROJECTS TOPICS AND MATERIALS

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ENGLISH AND LITERATURE PROJECTS TOPICS AND MATERIALS ON EVALUATION OF NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF PINK PEARL FOUNDATION BREAST CANCER CAMPAIGNS IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

The prevalence of Breast Cancer among Nigerian women has been the subject of discourse in recent time. Each diagnosis of cancer usually comes with fear, confusion as well as the uncertainty of survival, which can be alleviated by timely information that can produce behavioural change.

Over the years, information has increasingly been considered important in helping people cope with cancer (Meredith & Symonds, 1996). Numerous studies have shown the continuing dissatisfaction with current information provisions in terms of content and delivery mechanisms. Lack of timely and accurate information has been responsible for not meeting the needs of women with breast cancer, given that information can play an important role in patient’s empowerment and satisfaction. (Jenkins & Fallowfield, 2001; Bray, McCarron & Parken, 2005; Dumitrescu & Crotaria, 2004) ENGLISH AND LITERATURE PROJECTS TOPICS AND MATERIALS

Breast cancer has touched the lives of countless people, yet many women have misconceptions about the disease. One of the most common sources for breast cancer information used by Non-governmental Organizations in their campaigns is the newspaper.

Every day, women read facts about breast cancer awareness followed by messages telling them to get mammogram, perform breast self-examinations, exercise regularly and maintain a healthy diet to reduce their risk of developing breast cancer. Information about breast cancer during these campaigns such as risk factors, preventive measures and findings of recent studies about the disease frequently appear in the media. The mass media, especially the newspaper, play a vital role in public understanding of many health issues and the information relayed to the public through this medium often influences health behaviour (Kreps, 2003). ENGLISH AND LITERATURE PROJECTS TOPICS AND MATERIALS

Health care consumers play a more active role in their health than ever before and they show increased interest in health information published in popular newspapers (Moyer, 1995).

The public views the media as an important source of information on science, health and wellness issues (Andsager & Powess, 1999). Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide; it is a major cause of death among women aged 30 and above. It is the most common form of cancer among women in both high and low resource setting countries (Bray, McCarron & Parken, 2005; Dumitrescu & Crotaria, 2004; WHO Global Burden of Disease, 2004).

Presently, breast cancer constitutes a major public health issue globally, with over one million new cases diagnosed annually, resulting in over 400,000 annual deaths and about 4.4 million women living with the disease. It also affects one in every eight women during their lifetime (Dumitrescu & Crotaria, 2004; Bray, McCarron & Parkin, 2005; Okobia, Bunker, Okonofua & Usifo, 2006). ENGLISH AND LITERATURE PROJECTS TOPICS AND MATERIALS

But the recent report from the World Health Organization (WHO) calls for urgent action against the cancer scourge (Chukwuma & Wole, 2012). According to their report, by the year 2020, cancer could kill up to 10 million people yearly with the number of cancer cases increasing from 11 million in 2002 to 15.7 million in 2020 worldwide. Following this report, WHO estimates that cancer could kill some 84 million people by 2020 if preventive measures are not taken (Onyebuchi, 2012).

Breast cancer is cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk (Ademola, Adenike, Adebo & Abraham, 2007). Cancers originating from ducts are known as ductal carcinomas, while those originating from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas. It is the commonest cause of death in women worldwide.

In view of this scourge, so many campaigns have been carried out and are still ongoing by different bodies (NGOs) under the umbrella of Pink Breast Cancer Campaigns (PBCC). Some of these organizations are African Health Project, African Association of Health Disease, Breast Cancer Association of Nigeria (BRECAN), Global Health Foundation, Pink Dove Charitable Initiative, Pink Pearl Foundation, Breast without Spot Initiative, Genevieve Pink Ball, etc. These preventive measures represent efforts of the organization and other global initiatives to achieve interventions using newspaper campaigns.    ENGLISH AND LITERATURE PROJECTS TOPICS AND MATERIALS

Given the disturbing data on the widespread problem of breast cancer in Nigeria, there is an urgent need to create large scale media campaigns by using newspapers that raise awareness and increase prevention of breast cancer. In 2007, Pink Pearl Foundation was launched as an initiative to combat the scourge in Nigeria – specifically with the production and implementation of multi-media, multi-platform awareness and prevention campaigns focusing on women.

The control and prevention of Breast Cancer has become a centre piece of activities of so many Non-governmental and Federal Ministry of Health with the target of reducing the death rate caused by this malignant. Meeting the objectives of these organizations and the broader aims of the campaigns would transform the lives of millions of people especially women who will be spared from cancer burden and premature death. Prevention becomes the best protection for cancer. It includes: awareness, breast self-examination and mammogram. ENGLISH AND LITERATURE PROJECTS TOPICS AND MATERIALS

In an effort to promote breast cancer early detection, health communicators turn to the media for three primary purposes: (1) as part of a campaign for prompt screening and promote screening behaviour (2) add the campaign of breast cancer screening to the public agenda and (3) working for policy changes that lead to increased rates of screening (Freimuth, 1995)

The health of women is of great importance because of several negative lifestyle behaviours including higher intake of animal and hydrogenated fats and lower intake of fibre (Popkin, 2006). These negative lifestyle behaviours are placing women at an increased risk of lifestyle influence which causes death. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) identifies ten leading causes of death among women. They are: ENGLISH AND LITERATURE PROJECTS TOPICS AND MATERIALS

  • Cancer (27.2%)
  • Heart Disease (22%)
  • Stroke (7.5%)
  • Chronic Liver (3.9%)
  • Respiratory Disease (5.2%)
  • Aizheimers Disease (3.9%)
  • Unintentional Injuries (3.3%)
  • Diabetes (3.1%)
  • Influenza and Pneumonia (2.7%)
  • Kidney Disease (1.8%) and Septicema (1.5%)

The top four categories – disease of the heart, all forms of cancer, stroke and respiratory diseases – are considered to be chronic lifestyle influenced diseases.

Numerous health agencies and researchers agree that the major causes of death among women have shifted away from diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and cholera, to more chronic lifestyle – related diseases such as heart diseases, cancer and stroke (Kennedy, 2006; National Center for Health Statistics, 2006). This dramatic shift has largely been choices that are non-conducive to health (Belaal, 2006).

Communication campaigns remain one of the most popular tools in promoting health and social change issues. (Salmon & Atkin, 2003) and they aim to produce specific goals, outcomes and impacts by targeting a sizeable number of people within a particular time frame through a series of activities through communication and media channels (Rogers & Storey, 1987). Campaigns are designed to increase public knowledge, change behaviour and attitudes on issues such as HIV / AIDS, drug abuse, drunk-driving, Breast cancer and environment and protection.

1.1.2 About ‘Pink pearl foundation’ breast Cancer campaigns in Nigeria

October each year is breast cancer awareness month. Aside creating more awareness about this killer disease which is stealing women away from their loved ones irrespective of their race, class or status. It also means hundreds of Pink fund raising events and a heightened focus on the impact of this disease in the world.

Anywhere you see the Pink Ribbon; it is a wake-up call to the realities of breast cancer. The Pink ribbon represents fear of breast cancer, hope for the future, and the charitable goodness of people and businesses that publicly support the breast cancer movement. It is intended to evoke solidarity with women who currently have breast cancer (Vanguard newspaper, Oct.26, 2012).

Breast cancer organisations use the Pink ribbon to associate them with breast cancer, promote breast cancer awareness, and to support fund raising, while others use it as their primary symbol. While specifically representing breast cancer awareness, the Pink Ribbon is also a symbol of goodwill towards women in general. ENGLISH AND LITERATURE PROJECTS TOPICS AND MATERIALS

In Nigeria, each October hundreds, if not thousands of products are emblazoned with pink ribbons, coloured pink, sold with a promise of a small portion of the total cost of being donated to support breast cancer awareness and help victims get adequate treatment. Aside the Pink as solidarity with breast cancer victims and help the silent sufferers speak out.

However, the pink pearl foundation is a public service charity organisation designed for empowering women. At the forefront of their agenda is the firm establishment in the minds of Nigerian women, the need to undergo annual cancer screening, combined with an outreach to the community hospitals and the cancer awareness centres to provide services as a matter of a routine practice.

Breast cancer takes more lives every year in our society. The most significant progress made to reduce death rate from cancer is through early detection and this is what the foundation preach through increased public awareness, prevention through lifestyle, early detection initiatives, education, and entertainment. Improved treatment modalities and sponsorship research, the Pink pearl foundation is to contribute to the reduction of suffering, permanent physical scars and death caused by breast and cervical cancer.

Pink pearl foundation was founded in October 2007 by Orode Ryan Okpu(Uduaghan). It is an awareness organization in association with iCARE foundation, with the goal of fighting breast and cervical cancer and also to empower women across Nigeria. At Pink Pearl, a forum has been created where women are educated about breast cancer, free checkups, treatment and learn healthy tips in order to avoid having these diseases. Women are very important members of the society, and if you can save a woman, you have saved a generation.

Mission and Vision

The Pink pearl foundation is dedicated to improving access to high quality breast cancer screening and diagnostic services for women who are underserved, and to increasing public awareness through education about prevention, disease processes and the importance of regular examinations for early detection. And their vision is to reduce the spread of breast cancer in Nigeria by creating awareness for it in educative and entertaining ways.

  • Statement of Problem

Across the globe and particularly in resource – limited societies like Nigeria, breast cancer and its treatment constitute a great physical, psychological and economic challenge. The hallmarks of the disease are patients presenting themselves at an advanced stage for treatment in hospitals.

Awareness and knowledge of breast cancer vary among communities and population groups worldwide. While studies conducted to assess the knowledge of breast cancer among women have revealed satisfactory levels in some places (Grefield, Ramiez, Hunter & Richard, 2001), other reports, especially from developing countries such as Nigeria, have revealed inadequate knowledge and awareness of the disease (Adebanjo & Ajayi, 2000).

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