BSC BIOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS FOR UNDERGRADUATE

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BSC BIOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS FOR UNDERGRADUATE ON INCIDENCE OF FLUOROQUINOLONE RESISTANT Salmonella spp. IN INTENSIVELY REARED PIGS AND BROILER CHICKENS IN NSUKKALOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE https://emrislot.com/product/bsc-biology-project-topics-for-undergraduate/

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

The introduction of antimicrobial agents in human and veterinary medicine has been one of the most significant medical achievements of the 20th century. The first antimicrobial agents were introduced in the 1930’s, and a large number of new compounds were discovered in the following decades. However, shortly after the introduction, resistance began to emerge. Today, antimicrobial resistance poses a risk to human and animal health and should be taken seriously as it reduces the efficacy of antimicrobials in the treatment of infectious diseases in both animal and human medicine (European Medicines Agency, 2010). BSC BIOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS

Salmonella is a gram negative, non spore forming rod which is widely distributed in nature. The primary habitat of Salmonella spp. is the intestinal tract of animals such as birds, reptiles, farm animals, humans, and occasionally insects. Although their primary habitat is the intestinal tract, they may be found in other parts of the body from time to time. The organisms are excreted in faeces from which they may be transmitted by insects and other living creatures to a large number of places. They may also be found in water, especially polluted water. When polluted water and foods that have been contaminated by insects or by other means are consumed by humans and other animals, these organisms are once again shed through faecal matter (DANMAP, 2009). BSC BIOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS

Due to their role as causative agents of food borne diseases in humans, Salmonella represents a challenge in modern animal husbandry. Their widespread occurrence among food animals such as poultry, pigs, cattle, etc, means they may frequently be encountered in raw food products from such sources. Nevertheless, Salmonella spp. are also an important contaminant of other food commodities such as drinking water and fresh produce that can be contaminated by faecal material of human or animal origin. Salmonella food poisoning results from the ingestion of foods containing appropriate strains of this genus in significant numbers (Aarestrup et al., 2003).

Fluoroquinolones represent a complex group of synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobials, widely applied in treatment of human and animal infectious diseases. Fluoroquinolones comprise a group of synthetic antimicrobials, which are derived from 1, 4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. They inhibit the activity of bacterial DNA gyrase thereby inhibiting DNA replication and transcription. Fluoroquinolones are the fourth generation of the quinolone antimicrobials. They have a broader spectrum of activity than the three previous generations (FDA, 2005).BSC BIOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS

The introduction of fluoroquinolones as effective broad spectrum antimicrobials into veterinary medicine soon resulted in their widespread use. Prominent indications for their use, in veterinary medicine, are respiratory and enteric infections in farm animals.  They have been used not only in therapeutic agents but for disease preventon. In the USA, the introduction of fluoroquinolones into veterinary medicine (animal production) has been accompanied by an increase in resistant human pathogens (Anderson et al., 2003).

Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are highly bioavailable broad spectrum agents with activity against gram negative and positive pathogens especially those resistant to other classes of antimicrobial drugs (Cheng et al., 2012). The fluoroquinolones have been used to treat and prevent bacterial infections in clinical and veterinary settings with a view to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with such bacterial infections (Jurado et al., 2008).

Fluoroquinolones are very potent antimicrobials and active against a wide range of pathogenic organisms and well distributed in the body after administration. This class of antimicrobials has a therapeutic effect on most infections in different organs or tissues. Although it is rare that fluoroquinolones are the only available agent for treatment of a specific infectious disease, fluoroquinolones are important alternative medicinal product for a veterinarian to have as option for treatment. It is also used in human medicine to treat salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis (E.M.A. 2006).

The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics (including fluoroquinolones) in poultry and livestock production industry to treat and prevent infectious bacterial disease and as growth promoters at sub-therapeutic levels in feeds has led to bacterial resistance to antibiotics during the past years (Apata, 2009). The main problem with the use of antibiotics in food animal production is that many of the antibiotics that are used are from antibiotic classes that are also used in the treatment of human bacterial infections. Thus, the use of one specific antibiotic as growth promoters may also lead to cross resistance with antibiotics used in medicine. Even more alarming is the possibility that the use of one antibiotic could select for multiple antibiotic resistance to functionally unrelated antibiotics because antimicrobial resistance genes could be associated with transferable plasmids and transposons (Marshall and Levy, 2011).  BSC BIOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS

BSC BIOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS
BSC BIOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS

1.0.1    Statement of Problem

The transfer of fluoroquinolone resistant zoonotic pathogens via the food chain is an emerging concern in public health. The use of fluoroquinolone in veterinary medicine has been associated with an increasing prevalence of resistant Salmonella spp. in poultry meat and other meat products. A high prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant food borne pathogens affects therapeutic possibilities and probably the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in human medicine. BSC BIOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS

1.0.2    Aim

To investigate the occurrence of fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella in intensively reared pigs and chickens in Nsukka.

1.0.3    Objectives

The specific objectives of this work are to:

  • Isolate Salmonella from the faeces of intensively reared chickens and pigs.
  • Determine the frequency of isolation of Salmonella from intensively reared chickens and pigs.
  • Evaluate the resistance profile of isolated Salmonella to fluoroquinolones.
  • Evaluate the resistance profile of isolated Salmonella to other antibiotics.
  • Compare the resistance profile of isolated Salmonella to fluoroquinolones and other antibiotics.

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